# Understanding Arrays, Pointers and Multi-Dimensional Arrays¶

Todo

## Pointers, Arrays and Multidimensional Arrays¶

For a array named, say, some_array, both &some_array[0] and some_array are pointers of identical type and value. This holds true regardless of the number of dimensions of some_array. The code below, compiled using g++ -std=c++1z, illustrates this:

#include <cxxabi.h>
#include <string>
#include <utility>
#include <iostream>
#include <sstream>

template<class T> string get_typeof(const string& str, const T& t)
{
const std::type_info  &ti = typeid(t);

int status;

/*
GCC's extension __cxa_demanage() is from the header <cxxabi.h>
and is used to demangle the output of **typeid()**.
*/
char *realname = abi::__cxa_demangle(ti.name(), 0, 0, &status);

return string{"The type of '"} + str + "' is '" + realname + "'";
}

// Using T&& allows both rvalues an lvalues to be passed and then forwared to get_typeof()
template<class T> std::string ptr_diff(const std::string& str, T&& ptr)
{
ostringstream ostr;

ostr << get_typeof(str, forward<T>(ptr)) << ", and (" << str << " + 1) - " << str << " in bytes is: " << reinterpret_cast<unsigned long>(ptr + 1) - reinterpret_cast<unsigned long>(ptr);

return ostr.str();
}

int a1[3] = { 1, 2, 3};

int b1[2][3] = {{ 1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}};

int c1[2][2][3] = {  {{ 1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}}, {{ 7, 8, 9}, {10, 11, 12}} };

cout << ptr_diff("a1", a1) << '\n';
cout << ptr_diff("&a1[0]", &a1[0]) << "\n\n";

cout << ptr_diff("b1", b1) << '\n';
cout << ptr_diff("&b1[0]", &b1[0]) <<  "\n\n";

cout << ptr_diff("c1", c1) << '\n';
cout << ptr_diff("&c1[0]", &c1[0]) <<  "\n\n";


and the ouput is:

The type of 'a1' is 'int [3]', and (a1 + 1) - a1 in bytes is: 4
The type of '&a1[0]' is 'int*', and (&a1[0] + 1) - &a1[0] in bytes is: 4

The type of 'b1' is 'int [2][3]', and (b1 + 1) - b1 in bytes is: 12
The type of '&b1[0]' is 'int (*) [3]', and (&b1[0] + 1) - &b1[0] in bytes is: 12

The type of 'c1' is 'int [2][2][3]', and (c1 + 1) - c1 in bytes is: 24
The type of '&c1[0]' is 'int (*) [2][3]', and (&c1[0] + 1) - &c1[0] in bytes is: 24


### One Dimensional Arrays¶

Given a one dimensional array such as int a[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, the address of its first element &a[0] is of type int * as the code below illustrates. And the use of simply a is equivalent to &a[0]:

int a[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
int *p1 = &a[0]; // p point to the first int in the block of elements comprising a
int *p2 = a;     // equivalent to line above.
int *q = new int{9}; // q points to int on the heap with a value of 9


Adding one to a pointer does not increase the pointer’s address by one but rather advances the address by sizeof(int) bytes, advancing it to the next integer, so addition is scaled based on the underlying pointed-to type.. In the case of *p1 + , the pointer is advanced to the next element in the array a[1], to the address &a[1].

In fact, a[n] is equivalent to *(a + b). a + n, where n is an int, advances the pointer to the n + 1 th element (recall C/C++ arrays use zero-base indexing).

int a[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
int *p = &a[0];      // p point to the first int in the block of elements comprising a
p = p + 4;
cout << "p is equal to 5 is " << (*p == 5 ? "true" : "false"); // "p is equal to 5 is true"


Again, the name of the array itself, here a, is synomous with &a[0]. Thus we can loop through the array with following for-loop:

int a[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
int *p = a;
for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(a)/sizeof(int); ++i) {

cout << *(p + i) << ",";
}
// The above is equivalent to
for (int i = 0; i < sizeof(a)/sizeof(int); ++i) {

cout << a[i] << ",";
}


### Passing One Dimensional Arrays¶

One dimensional array can be passed using either syntax below.

int a[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
int *p = &a[0]; // p point to the first int in the block of elements comprising a

void print_array1(int a[], int size) // passes the address of the array not the entire array.
{
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {

cout << a[i] << ",";
}
}

// exactly equivalent to the function above
void print_array2(int *p, int size)
{
for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {

cout << p[i] << ",";
}
}


### Higher Dimensional Arrays¶

Two dimensional and higher arrays are still stored, like one dimensional arrays, as one contiguous linear block, with the first row or block of values followed by the next row or block of values. The code below shows the various address types possible for a 2-dimensional arrays, and the difference in bytes when using pointer addition for each of these various pointer types. It also shows the corresponding dereference types. It uses the GCC extension abi::__cxa_demanage() from the header <cxxabi.h> to demangle the output of typeid().

#include <string>
#include <iostream>
#include <cxxabi.h>
#include <sstream>
#include <utility>
using namespace std;

template<class T> string get_typeof(const string& str, const T& t)
{
const std::type_info  &ti = typeid(t);

int status;

char *realname = abi::__cxa_demangle(ti.name(), 0, 0, &status);

return string{"The type of '"} + str + "' is '" + realname + "'";
}

template<class T> std::string ptr_diff(const std::string& str, T&& ptr)
{
ostringstream ostr;

ostr << get_typeof(str, forward<T>(ptr)) << ", and (" << str << " + 1) - " << str << " in bytes is: " << reinterpret_cast<unsigned long>(ptr + 1) - reinterpret_cast<unsigned long>(ptr);

return ostr.str();
}

int a[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

cout << ptr_diff("&a[0]", &a[0]) << '\n';

cout << ptr_diff("&a", &a) << '\n';

cout << "\n\n";

cout << "Below are the above types when dereferenced:\n";

cout << "a is: int a[5]\n";

cout << get_typeof("*a", *a) << "\n";

cout << get_typeof("*&a[0]", *&a[0]) << "\n";

cout << get_typeof("*&a", *&a) << "\n";

cout <<  get_typeof("**&a", **&a) << "\n";


and the output is:

The type of '&a[0]' is 'int*', and (&a[0] + 1) - &a[0] in bytes is: 4
The type of '&a' is 'int (*) [5]', and (&a + 1) - &a in bytes is: 20

Below are the above types when dereferenced:
a is: int a[5]
The type of '*a' is 'int'
The type of '*&a[0]' is 'int'
The type of '*&a' is 'int [5]'
The type of '**&a' is 'int'


The code below shows the types of various pointer types of 2-dimensional arrays and what their difference in bytes are, when using pointer addtion. It aslo shows the corresponding dereferenced types:

int b[2][5] = {{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, {6, 7, 8, 9, 10}}; // Same as: int a[][5] ={{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, {6, 7, 8, 9, 10}};

int *p1 = &b[0][0];

int (*p2)[5] = &b[0];

int (*p3)[5] = b;

int (*p4)[2][5] = &b;

cout << "b is: int b[2][5]\n";

cout << get_typeof("&b[0][0]", &b[0][0]) << '\n';

cout << get_typeof("&b[0]", &b[0]) << '\n';

cout << get_typeof("b", b) << "\n";

cout << get_typeof("&b", &b) << "\n";

cout << "----------------------------------\nPointer addtion facts for array 'int b[2][5]'\n\n";

cout << ptr_diff("&b[0][0]", &b[0][0]) << '\n';

cout << ptr_diff("b[0][0]", b[0][0]) << '\n';   // TODO: ??

cout << ptr_diff("&b[0]", &b[0]) << '\n';

cout << ptr_diff("b", b) << '\n';

cout << ptr_diff("&b", &b) << '\n';

cout << "----------------------------------\n\n";

cout << "b is: int b[2][5]. Dereferenced types:\n";

cout << get_typeof("*&b[0]", *&b[0]) << '\n';

cout << get_typeof("*b", *b) << "\n";

cout << get_typeof("*&b", *&b) << "\n";


The output is:

b is: int b[2][5]
The type of &b[0][0] is: int*
The type of &b[0] is: int (*) [5]
The type of b is: int [2][5]
The type of &b is: int (*) [2][5]
----------------------------------

When the pointer is 'int*', (pointer + 1) - pointer in bytes is: 4
When the pointer is 'int (*) [5]', (pointer + 1) - pointer in bytes is: 20
When the pointer is 'int [2][5]', (pointer + 1) - pointer in bytes is: 20
When the pointer is 'int (*) [2][5]', (pointer + 1) - pointer in bytes is: 40
----------------------------------

b is: int b[2][5]
This: size of 'int' is: 4.
The type of *&b[0] is: int [5]
The type of *b is: int [5]
The type of *&b is: int [2][5]


### Preliminary Summary of 2-dimensional array pointers¶

This shows that for a two dimensional array:

1. b[0][0] is an int * pointing to the first element of the array, and adding one to it advances the pointer sizeof(int) bytes (or four bytes) to the next int b[0][1].
2. Both &b[0] and b are of type int (*)[5], pointer to a block of five consecutive integers, and adding one to them advances the pointer 4 x sizeof(int) or 20 bytes to the next block of five consecutive integers
3. &b is of type int (*)[2][5], a pointer to two blocks of ‘a block of five integers’, and adding one to it advances its address 2 x (4 x sizeof(int)) or 40 bytes to the next block of two blocks of ‘a block of five integers(which in this case does not exist).

The same logic holds for higher dimensional arrays:

int b[2][3][2] = { {{1, 2}, {3, 4}, {5, 6}},   {{7, 8}, {9, 10}, {11, 12}}  };

int *ptr1 = &b[0][0][0];

int (*ptr2)[2] = &b[0][0];

int (*ptr3)[3][2] = &b[0];

int (*ptr4)[3][2] = b;

int (*ptr5)[2][3][2] = &b;

cout << "This size of 'int' is " << sizeof(int) << ".\n\n";

cout << ptr_diff("&b[0][0][0]", &b[0][0][0]) << "\n";

cout << ptr_diff("&b[0][0]", &b[0][0]) << "\n";

cout << ptr_diff("&b[0]", &b[0]) << "\n";

cout << ptr_diff("b", b) << "\n";

cout << ptr_diff("&b", &b) << "\n";


and the output is:

This size of 'int' is 4.

The type of '&b[0][0][0]' is 'int*', and (&b[0][0][0] + 1) - &b[0][0][0] in bytes is: 4
The type of '&b[0][0]' is 'int (*) [2]', and (&b[0][0] + 1) - &b[0][0] in bytes is: 8
The type of '&b[0]' is 'int (*) [3][2]', and (&b[0] + 1) - &b[0] in bytes is: 24
The type of 'b' is 'int [2][3][2]', and (b + 1) - b in bytes is: 24
The type of '&b' is 'int (*) [2][3][2]', and (&b + 1) - &b in bytes is: 48


which show that for a three dimensional array:

1. &b[0][0][0] is an int *, pointing to b[0][0][0], and adding one to it advances the pointer sizeof(int) or four byes to the next int, whose address is &b[0][0][1].
2. &b[0][0] is of int (*)[2], or pointer to a block of two consecutive integers, and adding one to such a pointer advances the pointer 2 x sizeof(int) or 8 bytes to the next block of two integers at &b[0][1], which is the array {3, 4}.

Note

b[0][0] is not of the same type as &b[0][0], although &b[0][0][0] and b are, when b is used as a pointer and without any accompanying array index operators.

1. &b[0] is of type int (*)[3][2], a pointer to three blocks of a block of two integers each. So adding one to such a pointer advances its address 3 x (2 x sizeof(int)) or 24 bytes to the next block of three blocks of a block of two integers or &b[1], which is the array {{7, 8}, {9, 10}, {11, 12}}.
2. b is also synonomous to &b[0] and so is of type int (*)[3][2], a pointer to three blocks of a block of two integers each, and likewise adding one to such a pointer advances its address 3 x (2 x sizeof(int)) or 24 bytes to the next block of three blocks of a block of two integers each or &b[1], which is the array {{7, 8}, {9, 10}, {11, 12}}.
3. &b is of type int (*)[2][3][2], a pointer to two blocks of three blocks of a block two integers each. So adding one to such a pointer advances its address 2 x (3 x (2 x sizeof(int))) or 48 bytes to the next block of two blocks of three blocks of a block of two integers each, whose physical address is sizeof(int) + &b[1][2][1], four bytes beyond the last entry in b.

### Summary Example of Various Pointer Types for Arrays¶

Given

int myMatrix[2][4] = { {10,20,30,40},{50,60,70,80} };

myMatrix[0] is a pointer to the first row of the 2D array. (MyMatrix + 0) is of type int (*)[4]. It is a pointer to the entire first inner array of four integers. It is equivalent to (&myMatirx[0] + 0). To actually access elements of
the first inner array it must be deferenced: *(myMatrix + 0), which yields an int * to the first element of the array. Adding two to it, (*(myMatrix +0)) + 2, moves the pointer to the third value in the first inner array.

Todo

Todo

The statement below is wrong–I believe–in the sense that it might not be a pointer.

*((*(myMatrix + 1)) + 2)

myMatrix is the same as &myMatrix[0], which are of type int (*4). This is the the address of the first row of myMatrix. Adding one (myMatrix + 1) advances the pointer to the second row of myMatrix. Deferencing *(myMatrix + 1) returns an int * to the first element of the one-dimensional array {5, 6, 7, 8}. *(myMatrix + 1) is equivalent to int *p = &myMatrix[1][0]. Then adding 2, (*(myMatrix + 1)) + 2, advances the int * to the third element of the array {5, 6, 7, 8} , and then deferencing it *((*(myMatrix + 1)) + 2) returns the integer at that position 7

*(&myMatrix[0][0] + 4 * 1 + 2)&myMatrix[0][0] is of type int *…. finish explanation.

*(myMatrix[1] + 2) … add explanation.

(*(myMatrix + 1))[2] … add explanation.

In general, index operators are equivlant to pointer arithmetic and dereferencing following the pattern used here with a 3-dimensional array but applicable to arrays of any higher dimensions. Given an array a of three dimensions, say, a[n][m][n], the expxression a[i][j][k] is always equivalent to *(*(*(a + i)) + j) + k). For example:

int a[2][2][3] = {  {{ 1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6}}, {{ 7, 8, 9}, {10, 11, 12}} };
cout << "a[0][1][2] = " <<  a[0][1][2] << ", and *( (*(*(a + 0) + 1)) + 2) = " <<   *((*(*(a + 0) + 1)) + 2);

a[0][1][2] = 6, and *( (*(*(a + 0) + 1)) + 2) = 6


a is of type int (*)[2][3]. (a + 0) therefore points to the first of the two inner 2 x 3 arrays. Dereferencing it yields a pointer of type int (*) [3] that points to the first array (of the first of the two inner 2 x 3 array of a), namely {1, 2, 3}. (*(a + 0) + 1) adds one to this pointer, and moves the pointer to the second array (of the first of two inner arrays of a). Dereferencing it (*(*(a + 0) + 1)) yields an int * pointer that points to {4, 5, 6}, and adding two ((*(*(a + 0) + 1))   + 2) moves it to 6. Finally, deferencing the pointer yields the pointer-to value of 6`.

In passing a multi‐dimensional array, the first array size does not have to be specified. The second (and any subsequent) dimensions must be given: int myFun(int list[][10]);